The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy by Isaac Newton

Date of Publication: 1729

First Edition English.

“The Principia is generally described as the greatest work in the history of science .

Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler had certainly shown the way; but where they described the phenomena they observed, Newton explained the underlying universal laws. The Principia provided the greatest synthesis of the cosmos, proving finally its physical unity. Newton showed that the important and dramatic aspects of nature that were subject to the universal law of gravitation could be explained, in mathematical terms, with a single physical theory. With him the separation of the natural and supernatural, of sublunar and superlunar worlds disappeared. The same laws of gravitation and motion rule everywhere; for the first time a single mathematical law could explain the motion of objects on earth as well as the phenomena of the heavens. The whole cosmos is composed of inter-connecting parts influencing each other according to these laws. It was this grand conception that produced a general revolution in human thought, equaled perhaps only by that following Darwin’s Origin of Species. It was the final, irrevocable break with a medieval conception based on Greek and Roman cosmology and a scholastic system derived from the medieval interpretation of Aristotle. Although Newton was a profoundly (but not a conventionally) religious man, deeply impressed with the need for a divine power to create and conserve the universe, immutable laws of nature were sufficient sources of scientific explanation; hence Newton’s universe, almost independent of the spiritual order, ushered in the age of rationalism, scientific determinism and the acceptance of a mechanistic view of nature… [Newton] is generally regarded as one of the greatest mathematicians of all time and the founder of mathematical physics ” (PMM 161). #0621-0622